Causes of air pollution pdf


    What are the causes of air Pollution. Pollutant. Description and main. UK sources. Potential effects on health/environment. Particulate Matter. (PM-PM10 and. PDF | Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour It creates smog and acid rain, causes cancer and respiratory. Air pollution is one such form that refers to the contamination of the air, irrespective of indoors or outside. Lets have a look at various causes, effects and .

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    Causes Of Air Pollution Pdf

    The causes of air pollution in Budapest, Sofia and Zagreb were analysed. •. The picture resulting from this study highlights the complexity of the pollution. pollutant that causes significant respiratory illness, including health-harmful PM air pollution – particularly from diesel vehicles, diesel engines, coal . ( ) - pdf. 6. These days, many people are concerned about air pollution and whether it might affect their health the five main air pollutants that can cause immediate health.

    Encyclopedic Entry Vocabulary Air pollution consists of chemicals or particle s in the air that can harm the health of humans, animals, and plants. It also damages buildings. Pollutant s in the air take many forms. They can be gases, solid particles, or liquid droplets. Sources of Air Pollution Pollution enters the Earth's atmosphere in many different ways. Most air pollution is created by people, taking the form of emission s from factories, cars, planes, or aerosol can s. Second-hand cigarette smoke is also considered air pollution. These man-made sources of pollution are called anthropogenic source s. Some types of air pollution, such as smoke from wildfire s or ash from volcano es, occur naturally. These are called natural source s.

    Causes Air pollution causes Air pollution is caused by the presence in the atmosphere of toxic substances, mainly produced by human activities, even though sometimes it can result from natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms and wildfires, also depleting the air quality.

    Anthropogenic air pollution sources are: 1. Combustion of fossil fuels, like coal and oil for electricity and road transport, producing air pollutants like nitrogen and sulfur dioxide 2. Emissions from industries and factories, releasing large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, chemicals and organic compounds into the air 3.

    Agricultural activities, due to the use of pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers that emit harmful chemicals 4. Waste production, mostly because of methane generation in landfills Photo by Kevin Lee on Unsplash Effects Air pollution effects It is impossible to describe the whole extent of potential and actual damage caused by all forms of air pollution. But here are the main consequences: Photo by Pok Rie on Pexels On the environment Air pollution has a major impact on the process of plant evolution by preventing photosynthesis in many cases, with serious consequences for the purification of the air we breathe.

    It also contributes to the formation of acid rain, atmospheric precipitations in the form of rain, frost, snow or fog, which are released during the combustion of fossil fuels and transformed by contact with water steam in the atmosphere. Photo by Simon Matzinger on Pexels Global warming On top of that, air pollution is a major contributor to global warming and climate change.

    In fact, the abundance of carbon dioxide in the air is one of the causes of the greenhouse effect. Ozone O3 is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer.

    Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities largely the combustion of fossil fuel , it is a pollutant and a constituent of smog.

    Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Persistent organic pollutants POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

    Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment. Sources There are various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for releasing pollutants into the atmosphere.

    These sources can be classified into two major categories. Anthropogenic man-made sources Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro , Georgia in preparation for spring planting.

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    Smoking of fish over an open fire in Ghana, These are mostly related to the burning of multiple types of fuel. Stationary sources include smoke stacks of fossil fuel power stations see for example environmental impact of the coal industry , manufacturing facilities factories and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. In developing and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung.

    Controlled burn practices in agriculture and forest management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.

    Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest. Fumes from paint , hair spray , varnish , aerosol sprays and other solvents.

    These can be substantial; emissions from these sources was estimated to account for almost half of pollution from volatile organic compounds in the Los Angeles basin in the s.

    Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below Fertilized farmland may be a major source of nitrogen oxides. Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane , emitted by the digestion of food by animals , for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust.

    Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking.

    Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires. These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutants—specifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic organic carbon compounds — to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants.

    What are the causes of air pollution

    The VOC production from these species result in ozone levels up to eight times higher than the low-impact tree species. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant e. Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution.

    In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages. There are 12 compounds in the list of persistent organic pollutants. Dioxins and furans are two of them and intentionally created by combustion of organics, like open burning of plastics. These compounds are also endocrine disruptors and can mutate the human genes.

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a compilation of air pollutant emission factors for a wide range of industrial sources.

    Air pollution exposure can be expressed for an individual, for certain groups e. For example, one may want to calculate the exposure to a hazardous air pollutant for a geographic area, which includes the various microenvironments and age groups. This can be calculated [32] as an inhalation exposure. This would account for daily exposure in various settings e.

    The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and other sensitive subpopulations. The exposure to an air pollutant must integrate the concentrations of the air pollutant with respect to the time spent in each setting and the respective inhalation rates for each subgroup for each specific time that the subgroup is in the setting and engaged in particular activities playing, cooking, reading, working, spending time in traffic, etc.

    For example, a small child's inhalation rate will be less than that of an adult. A child engaged in vigorous exercise will have a higher respiration rate than the same child in a sedentary activity. The daily exposure, then, needs to reflect the time spent in each micro-environmental setting and the type of activities in these settings.

    What are the causes of air pollution

    A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time. Radon Rn gas, a carcinogen , is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde H2CO gas. Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds VOCs as they dry.

    Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners , incense , and other scented items. Controlled wood fires in stoves and fireplaces can add significant amounts of smoke particulates into the air, inside and out. Carbon monoxide poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors or in a confined space, such as a tent. Traps are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas and hydrogen sulfide , out of interiors.

    Clothing emits tetrachloroethylene , or other dry cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning. Though its use has now been banned in many countries, the extensive use of asbestos in industrial and domestic environments in the past has left a potentially very dangerous material in many localities.

    Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs.

    It occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. Sufferers have severe dyspnea shortness of breath and are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer.

    As clear explanations are not always stressed in non-technical literature, care should be taken to distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases.

    What is Air Pollution?

    According to the World Health Organization WHO , these may defined as; asbestosis , lung cancer, and Peritoneal Mesothelioma generally a very rare form of cancer, when more widespread it is almost always associated with prolonged exposure to asbestos. Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms on walls and generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants , soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen , dust, and mold.

    Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature. Health effects See also: Neuroplastic effects of pollution In , air pollution caused premature deaths on average of 1 year in Europe, and was a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases , including respiratory infections , heart disease , COPD , stroke and lung cancer. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency department visits, more hospital admissions and premature death.

    The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, and the individual's health status and genetics.

    Children aged less than five years that live in developing countries are the most vulnerable population in terms of total deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollution.

    In December air pollution was estimated to kill , people in China each year. Children are particularly at risk due to the immaturity of their respiratory organ systems. The agency projected the more protective standard would also prevent an additional 26, cases of aggravated asthma, and more than a million cases of missed work or school.

    The number of annual premature deaths is considerably higher than the fatalities related to auto collisions in the same area, which average fewer than 2, per year.

    In several human experimental studies, using a well-validated exposure chamber setup, DE has been linked to acute vascular dysfunction and increased thrombus formation. Additionally, air pollution has been associated with increased hospitalization and mortality from asthma and COPD. All subjects were male postal truck drivers aged 40 to Compared to the subjects from the outlying towns, the London subjects exhibited more severe respiratory symptoms including cough, phlegm, and dyspnea , reduced lung function FEV1 and peak flow rate , and increased sputum production and purulence.

    The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded that air pollution was the most likely cause of the observed differences. It is believed that much like cystic fibrosis , by living in a more urban environment serious health hazards become more apparent.

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